Video Media : "media" is/are what you record onto, such as
a recordable DVD or recordable CD
Video Formats are Compression Options, in other words, "as what type of file is the video/audio saved?"
DVD-Video may have up to 8 audio tracks (streams). Each track can be in one of 3 formats: Dolby Digital (AC-3), MPEG1 Layer 2 audio (MPA or MP2), or PCM (WAV).
The audio must be sampled at 48 kHz (as opposed to the 44.1 kHz for an audio CD) with a minimum of 16 bits/sample. (Note: You cannot use MP3 files when authoring a DVD.)
The DVD specifications (adhered to by DVD Players) requires a maximum bit rate of 10.08 mbps (million bits per second) for DVD Video disks. This is the maximum bit rate for the video, the audio, and the subpicture stream. The maximum video bit rate is 9.8 Mb/s, but normally a video bit rate of 6 Mb/s will appear lossless. For just the video and the audio streams the recommended maximum bit rate is 9 Mbits/s. For example, if you encode your video at 6000 kbps and your audio at 1540 kbps (an uncompressed WAV file) your combined bit rate will be 7540 kbps. If you add more audio streams (up to a maximum of 8 audio streams) your combined data rate will be the video data rate plus the audio bit rates of all of the audio streams (not just the video and the single audio stream that will be playing at one time). [source]
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The TMPGEnc "Project Wizard" summaries the types of Video Formats
quite nicely, as shown here.
In the first step of the wizard, you select the Format that you want your final project to be. Then the program
sets the encoding options so that it can convert your audio and video source into the appropriate format.
Your basic choices are Video-CD (VCD), Super Video-CD (SVCD), or DVD. Each format has an associated
resolution (width by height), an associated data rate (bits per second), and associated audio formats
(e.g. PCM / WAV audio track, or AC-3 audio track).
MPEG-1 -- Used for VCD (see Digital Video Formats). Commonly referred to as "VHS Quality"
MPEG-2 -- Used for SVCDs, and DVD-Video.
MP3s (MPEG-3) -- Audio compression format. Well known as "mp3".
MPEG-4 -- The most common applications of MPEG 4 are DivX [ DivX;-) ] and Apple's QuickTime (Apple developed its own ISO-compliant MPEG-4 video codec....)
See also XviD ("XviD is an ISO MPEG-4 compliant video codec.") (Note however, that DivX does not equal MPEG-4.)
Standard DVD players don't recognize the MPEG-4 video format (though some are now able to play DivX).
DVD Media Formats & DVD Specifications:
DVD-5 "dee vee dee five" 4.37 GB (4.70 Billion Bytes, or BB) of data, approximately 2 hours of video (movie image file should be under 4.3GB) Resolutions DVD-9 "dee vee dee nine" 7.95 GB (8.54 BB) DVD-R
DVD dash R 4.37 gig (4.70 BB) DVD+R (2.0) DVD plus R 4.37 gig (4.70 BB) DVD VR DVD Video Recording DVD VR is a format that enables you to produce a DVD movie that can be edited. A DVD produced in VR format will allow you to add new video contents, change menu backgrounds, insert chapters, split video clips and even remove unwanted video segments (as long as you have enough space available on the disc). [ more] DVD-VR DVD Video Recording for DVD-RW DVD-VR is created using a DVD-RW (DVD-dash-Read/Write) burning device.
You can only playback the contents on a DVD-RW compatible device, and not on a standard home DVD player.
You can use Ulead DVD MovieFactory 3 (for example) to copy your DVD-VR disc onto standard DVD-Video for playback on standard DVD players.
DVD+VR DVD Video Recording for DVD+RW When you delete a video from a disc using the DVD+VR format, you will not be able to immediately re-use that space,
while with DVD-VR you will be able to.
Disks created using DVD+VR format can be played on DVD+RW compatible devices _and_ home DVD players.
Note: DVD-RW disks can be used for DVD+RW if using certain programs, such as Ulead DVD Disk Creator.
DVD-Video is an application of DVD-ROM,
according to the specification created by the DVD Forum (see 6.1).
DVD-Video is also an application of MPEG-1, MPEG-2, Dolby Digital, DTS, and other formats.
A DVD disc has one track (stream) of MPEG-2 constant bit rate (CBR) or variable bit rate (VBR) compressed digital video.
MPEG-1 CBR and VBR video is also allowed.
525/60 (NTSC, 29.97 interlaced frames/sec) and 625/50 (PAL/SECAM, 25 interlaced frames/sec) video display systems are expressly supported.
Coded frame rates of 24 fps progressive from film, 25 fps interlaced from PAL video, and 29.97 fps interlaced from NTSC video are typical.
In the case of a 24 fps source, the encoder embeds MPEG-2 repeat_first_field flags into the video stream to make the decoder either
perform 2-3 pulldown for 60Hz NTSC displays (actually 59.94Hz) or 2-2 pulldown (with resulting 4% speedup) for 50Hz PAL/SECAM displays.
MPEG-2, 525/60 (NTSC):
720x480, 704x480, 352x480, 352x240
MPEG-2, 625/50 (PAL):
720x576, 704x576, 352x576, 352x288
MPEG-1, 525/60 (NTSC): 352x240
MPEG-1, 625/50 (PAL): 352x288
Digital Video Formats:
VCD -- Video CD, or VCD, is a digital movie format. It's basically a primitive version of DVD. MPEG-1 is used for making VCDs.
A Video CD is a kind of CD. It looks the same as a music CD or a CD-ROM, except that instead of music or software, it holds movies, using compressed MPEG-1 video. Its resolution is 352x240 (NTSC) or 352x288 (PAL), which is roughly comparable to VHS.
Compared to Video CD, DVD provides much higher resolution (700x480), comparable to laserdisc or even better. DVD movies use MPEG-2 compression, rather than the MPEG-1 compression used by Video CDs.
Resolution Data Rates Audio VCD 352x240
29.77 fps Technically, lines of horizontal resolution refers to visually resolvable vertical lines per picture height. In other words, it's measured by counting the number of vertical black and white lines that can be distinguished in an area that is as wide as the picture is high. The idea is to make the measurement independent of the aspect ratio. Lines of horizontal resolution applies both to television displays and to signal formats such as that produced by a DVD player. Most TVs have ludicrously high numbers listed for their horizontal resolution.
Since DVD has 720 horizontal pixels (on both NTSC and PAL discs), the horizontal resolution can be calculated by dividing 720 by 1.33 (from the 4:3 aspect ratio) to get 540 lines. On a 1.78 (16:9) display, you get 405 lines. In practice, most DVD players provide about 500 lines instead of 540 because of filtering and low-quality digital-to-analog converters. VHS has about 230 (172 widescreen) lines, broadcast TV has about 330 (248 widescreen), and laserdisc has about 425 (318 widescreen).
Don't confuse lines of horizontal resolution (resolution along the x axis) with scan lines (resolution along the y axis). DVD produces exactly 480 scan lines of active picture for NTSC and 576 for PAL.
(for both 4:3 and 16:9)
DVD uses MPEG-2 video encoding
DVDs are encoded in an MPEG-2 format and encased in a file called a VOB (Video Object) file.
At average video data rates of 3.5 to 6 Mbps (million bits/second), compression artifacts may be occasionally noticeable. Higher data rates can result in higher quality, with almost no perceptible difference from the master at rates above 6 Mbps.
DVD includes the option of PCM (pulse code modulation) digital audio with sampling sizes and rates higher than audio CD. Alternatively, audio for most movies is stored as discrete, multi-channel surround sound using Dolby Digital (AC-3) or DTS audio compression similar to the digital surround sound formats used in theaters.
MPEG-2 also commonly uses MP2 audio.
4/3 = 1.33